Word 1
Meaning
Word 2
Meaning
accept
to agree to receive or do
except
not including
adverse
unfavourable, harmful
averse
strongly disliking; opposed
advice
recommendations about what to do
advise
to recommend something
affect
to change or make a difference to
effect
a result; to bring about a result
aisle
a passage between rows of seats
isle
an island
all together
all in one place, all at once
altogether
completely; on the whole
along
moving or extending horizontally on
a long
referring to something of great length
aloud
out loud
allowed
permitted
altar
a sacred table in a church
alter
to change
amoral
not concerned with right or wrong
immoral
not following accepted moral standards
appraise
to assess
apprise
to inform someone
assent
agreement, approval
ascent
the action of rising or climbing up
aural
relating to the ears or hearing
oral
relating to the mouth; spoken
balmy
pleasantly warm
barmy
foolish, crazy
bare
naked; to uncover
bear
to carry; to put up with
bated
in phrase 'with batedbreath', i.e. in great suspense
baited
with bait attached or inserted
bazaar
a Middle Eastern market
bizarre
strange
berth
a bunk in a ship, train, etc.
birth
the emergence of a baby from the womb
born
having started life
borne
carried
bough
a branch of a tree
bow
to bend the head; the front of a ship
brake
a device for stopping a vehicle; to stop a vehicle
break
to separate into pieces; a pause
breach
to break through, or break a rule; a gap
breech
the back part of a gun barrel
broach
to raise a subject for discussion
brooch
a piece of jewellery
canvas
a type of strong cloth
canvass
to seek people’s votes
censure
to criticize strongly
censor
to ban parts of a book or film; a person who does this
cereal
a grass producing an edible grain; a breakfast food made from grains
serial
happening in a series
chord
a group of musical notes
cord
a length of string; a cord-like body part
climactic
forming a climax
climatic
relating to climate
coarse
rough
course
a direction; a school subject; part of a meal
complacent
smug and self-satisfied
complaisant
willing to please
complement
to add to so as to improve; an addition that improves something
compliment
to praise or express approval; an admiring remark
council
a group of people who manage or advise
counsel
advice; to advise
cue
a signal for action; a wooden rod
queue
a line of people or vehicles
curb
to keep something in check; a control or limit
kerb
(in British English) the stone edge of a pavement
currant
a dried grape
current
happening now; a flow of water, air, or electricity
defuse
to make a situation less tense
diffuse
to spread over a wide area
desert
a waterless, empty area; to abandon someone
dessert
the sweet course of a meal
discreet
careful not to attract attention
discrete
separate and distinct
disinterested
impartial
uninterested
not interested
draught
a current of air
draft
a first version of a piece of writing
draw
an even score at the end of a game
drawer
a sliding storage compartment
dual
having two parts
duel
a fight or contest between two people
elicit
to draw out a reply or reaction
illicit
not allowed by law or rules
ensure
to make certain that something will happen
insure
to provide compensation if a person dies or property is damaged
envelop
to cover or surround
envelope
a paper container for a letter
exercise
physical activity; to do physical activity
exorcise
to drive out an evil spirit
fawn
a young deer; light brown
faun
a mythical being, part man, part goat
flaunt
to display ostentatiously
flout
to disregard a rule
flounder
to move clumsily; to have difficulty doing something
founder
to fail
forbear
to refrain
forebear
an ancestor
foreword
an introduction to a book
forward
onwards, ahead
freeze
to turn to ice
frieze
a decoration along a wall
grisly
gruesome, revolting
grizzly
a type of bear
hoard
a store
horde
a large crowd of people
imply
to suggest indirectly
infer
to draw a conclusion
loath
reluctant, unwilling
loathe
to hate
loose
to unfasten; to set free
lose
to be deprived of; to be unable to find
meter
a measuring device
metre
a metric unit; rhythm in verse
militate
to be a powerful factor against
mitigate
to make less severe
palate
the roof of the mouth
palette
a board for mixing colours
pedal
a foot-operated lever
peddle
to sell goods
pole
a long, slender piece of wood
poll
voting in an election
pour
to flow or cause to flow
pore
a tiny opening; to study something closely
practice
the use of an idea or method; the work or business of a doctor, dentist, etc.
practise
to do something repeatedly to gain skill; to do something regularly
prescribe
to authorize use of medicine; to order authoritatively
proscribe
to officially forbid something
principal
most important; the head of a school
principle
a fundamental rule or belief
sceptic
a person inclined to doubt
septic
infected with bacteria
sight
the ability to see
site
a location
stationary
not moving
stationery
writing materials
storey
a level of a building
story
a tale or account
titillate
to arouse interest
titivate
to make more attractive
tortuous
full of twists; complex
torturous
full of pain or suffering
wreath
a ring-shaped arrangement of flowers etc.
wreathe
to surround or encircle


Opening email phrases (opening part of a business letter)

I am writing to confirm ...
I am writing to apologize for ...
I am writing to enquire about ...
I am writing to you in response to your advertisement for...
I received your address from + and would like ...
I recently wrote to you about ...
In reply to your letter of 8 May, ...
With reference to your letter of 8 June, I ...
With reference to your advertisement in ...
With reference to your phone call today, ...
After having seen your advertisement in ... , I would like ...
After having received your address from ... , I ...
Thank you for your letter of 8 May.
Thank you for your letter regarding ...
Thank you for your letter/e-mail about ...
To Whom It May Concern:


Thank you phrases (useful for writing a business thank you letter)

Thank you.
Thank you very much.
Thank you in advance
Thank you for your help!
Thank you for your letter!
Thanks for your assistance!
Thank you for your patience.
Thanks for the prompt response.
Thank you for your kind comments!
Thank you very much for your answers!
Thank you for your time and consideration.
Thank you very much for your warm words!
Thank you for allowing us the privilege of serving you!
Thank you for the e-mail. We appreciate your feedback, and will get back to you as soon as possible.
Suggestions are welcome, thank you.
My apologies to you for bothering you, and thank you for your kind help.


Closing email phrases (business letter closing phrases)
I look forward to your reply.
I look forward to seeing you.
I look forward to hearing from you.
I look forward to hearing from you soon.
I look forward to meeting you next Tuesday.
I look forward to seeing you next Thursday.
We look forward to welcoming you as our customer.
I look forward to an opportunity to speak with you personally.
I look forward to a successful working relationship in the future.
I hope to get answers from you.
Good luck and I look forward to your response!
If you require any further information, feel free to contact me.
If you have any questions, please don't hesitate to contact us.
Should you need any further information, please do not hesitate to contact me.
I would appreciate your immediate attention to this matter.
Your prompt reply is very much appreciated.
Please contact us again if we can help in any way.
Please contact us again if there are any problems.
Please contact us again if you have any questions.


Correspondence exchange

I am writing to
… Inquire/ ask/ request/ offer/ introduce/ thank/ apologize/ congratulate
I am writing in reply to
Further to/… with reference to our … conversation
This is to inform/ let know/ advice
As you know from our previous correspondence…
Do not hesitate to contact me.
Please, notify that a reply is required by… without fail.
We would be grateful if you could…
We look forward to your (early) reply
Your prompt reply will be appreciated.
I am much obliged to you for…
I deeply appreciate your …
I was pleased to…
It is very kind of you to…
Many thanks for…
Many thanks in advance.
Please, accept my sincere/ deep appreciation for your help.
We are grateful for your co-operation.
I will be in touch as soon as …
I will keep you informed.
The information will be handled in confidence.
Pay special attention to the fact that…
We refer to our telephone conversation of…
We should be most happy to provide you with any further information you may require….
We will certainly contact you if…
I am writing to ask you for a favour…
In accordance with law I request…
by separate mail…
We would share with you the estimates of…


Apologies

I am afraid that…
I am sorry that I missed the opportunity of contacting you earlier/ calling you…
I am very sorry to have caused you so much trouble…
I must apologize that…
I regret to inform you that…
Please, accept my apologies for…
Please, forgive me for troubling you taking so much time / taking so long to answer your letter the delay in…
The reason for the present delay is…
Unfortunately …
We are sorry for the inconvenience that we may have caused you.
To my regret I must inform you that…


Closing the letter

Cordially,
Cordially Yours,
I remain,
Looking forward to continue co-operation, I remain…
Respectfully,
Sincerely,
Sincerely Yours,
Truly Yours,
Very Truly Yours,
Yours,


Complaints

I am very disappointed about this fact.
I have to ask you to accept the responsibility for these damages/ actions…


Arranging an appointment

To accept an invitation
To ask for an appointment
To be present (at/in)
To decline an invitation
To fix the exact dates of call/ meeting/ work
I am unable to accept your invitation.
I could come/ call at any…
I should be pleased to know what dates would be convenient to you.


Proposals and promises

As promised
As we requested
Does the idea appeal to you?
I hope you will not mind
If the above idea is attractive to you…
If you find circumstances acceptable …
In case our proposal would be acceptable…
It is more possible for us to…
On the following conditions
We shall do our best to…


Useful

As a result of…
As you may know…
At the present time…
Despite the fact that…
Draw your attention to…
In view of the above said…
It is to be noted…
On the ground that…
Take into account…
Take into consideration…
Briefly, the main points that have been made are…
I have some sympathy with your position, but…
Excuse me, but I think it is relevant to add that…
I am afraid there seems to have been a slight misunderstanding…


AFAICAs far as I'm concerned
AFAIKAs far as I know
ASAPAs soon as possible
BRBBe right back
BTDTBeen there, done that
BTWBy the way
FAQFrequently asked question
FYIFor your information
HTHHope this helps
IANALI am not a lawyer
IMHOIn my humble opinion
IMNSHO   In my not so humble opinion
IMOIn my opinion
IOWIn other words
LOLLaughing out loud
MOTASMember of the appropriate sex
MOTOSMember of the opposite sex
MOTSSMember of the same sex
OTOHOn the other hand
ROTFLRolling on the floor laughing
RTFMRead The Fine Manual
WTFWhat the heck
YMMHYou might mean here
YMMVYour mileage may vary


  1. 이웃사촌 2021.02.09 15:36

    잘 보고 갑니다...

Making requests in emails and letters


Here are some other examples of requests:
I would request … (+ noun)
I would request your immediate attention to the matter.
[very formal]
This is used to express dissatisfaction.

Could you possibly send me … ?[tentative]

Adverbs such as ‘also’ and ‘therefore’ can be inserted into a request as follows:
  • I would also be grateful if you could send me … .
  • I would therefore be grateful if you could send me … .
  • Could you therefore please send me … ?
  • Could you therefore send me … ?
  • Could you also send me … ?
  • Therefore, please send me … .
If you make two requests in a letter or email, the second request should include the word ‘also’, as we can see here:
Dear Mr Smith
I recently saw an advertisement for your new range of kitchen equipment.
I own a small retail shop selling household goods and am interested in buying some of your new products. Could you therefore please send me your price list? [first request] I would also be grateful if you could include details of delivery and postage. [second request]
Thank you in advance.
Best regards


Opening line
 I had a couple of important meetings last week. Here is a report on the first one.
 As requested, please find a report on my meeting with… below.
 I met … yesterday, so I am sending you the usual report on how the meeting went.
 I thought I should inform you of the results of my meeting with… on Monday.
 I had a meeting with a new client yesterday and I thought that you’d like to hear about
the results.
 Here is my report on my meeting with… yesterday (that you requested).
 I had a meeting with the supplier who you recommended last week and…
 … suggested that you’d like to know something about my meeting with… yesterday.
 As … is also a supplier/ client of yours, I thought you should hear about my meeting
with them the day before yesterday.
 I’m writing because I would like your comments on a meeting I had yesterday.
Second line
 I’m CCing … in on this.
 I will also send a copy of the full minutes of the meeting/ the contract in a couple of
days.
First line or paragraph of main body
 The thing you will probably most want to know is…
 The first/ main thing we talked about was…
 We agreed on…
 Unfortunately,…
 You will be pleased to hear that…
Second line or paragraph of main body
 We also…
 The next thing…
 Next/ then…
Main part of main body
 We discussed/ talked about/ agreed on/ decided/ negotiated/ argued about/ signed/
drafted/ drew up/ redrafted/ renegotiated…
 I/ we/ he/ she/ they requested/ recommended/ proposed/ brought up/ mentioned/ reported/ showed/ predicted/ disagreed/ agreed with/ refused/ rejected/ stressed/ emphasized/ explained/ complained/ guaranteed/ promised/ agreed to/ asked for/ presented/ conceded/ admitted/ confirmed/ denied/ introduced/ insisted on/ threatened/
offered/ pointed out/ acknowledged/ outlined/ summarised/ raised/
 I/ we/ he/ she/ they informed/ reassured/ reminded/ encouraged/ advised/ warned/ invited me/ him/ her/ us/ them…
 I/ we/ he/ she/ they filled me/ him/ her/ us/ them in on…
 I/ we/ he/ she/ they updated me/ him/ her/ us/ them in on…
Last line of main body
 We also talked about…
 I didn’t get the chance to ask them about…
 We decided to leave discussion of… until the next meeting.
 We arranged another meeting for…
 They will send me the documents by the end of next week.
 They had to leave before we could reach a conclusion, so…


Second to last line of the email
 I’m sure you will agree that this is a worrying development/ we can be happy about the
outcome.
 If you can give your approval for what we decided, I can get them to sign by the middle
of next week.
Last line of the email (before the final greeting)
 If you want any more details about what they said, please let me know.
 I’ll be meeting them again next month, so please tell me if there is anything you’d like
me to ask them.
 I’ll CC you in on any future email communication with them.
 I’ll send you a copy of the contract as soon as it arrives.

Good Endings

Close with a clear statement of your recommendation and a willingness to cooperate further.

Sentences:
Mr. Bright will be a great addition to your program. If I can further assist, please e-mail or call me.

Jane Bright has my strong recommendation. She will be a credit to your program.

I am confident that Mr. Bright will continue to be very productive. He has my highest recommendation.

I give her my highest recommendation, without reservation. Please send e-mail or call me if you have further questions.

I believe in John�s outstanding abilities for scientific work and strongly recommend him for further education at your university, where he can develop and apply his bright talents.

It is satisfying to be able to give him my highest recommendation. I hope this information proves helpful.

I enthusiastically recommend Mr. Bright as a promising candidate.

Seldom have I been able to recommend someone without reservation. It is a pleasure to do so in the case of John Bright.

I will be pleased to answer any additional questions you may have.

I am very interested in Mr. Bright's application and will be happy to provide further information.

Phrases:
every confidence in her ability to
give my unqualified recommendation
has always proved satisfactory
has my highest recommendation
have admiration and respect for
have no reservations in
hope this information proves helpful
if I can further assist
if you have further questions
if you need additional information
if you would like more information
recommend without reservation
recommend her very highly
request your favorable consideration of
should be given serious consideration
should you have any questions
will meet your expectations
will be successful in any enterprise he undertakes
will be a credit to your
will measure up to your high standards
will be a great addition to
would be an asset to your program
would be a valuable addition to

[To begin the email]

  1. Please find attached my resume,photos from the conference, files and etc.
    attachment(n)= added computer file.
     
  2. I've forwarded_________to you.
    I am forwarding________to you.
    forward(n)= resend an email and send it to different email address.
  3. I've cc'd Tom on this email.
          cc'ed
          copied
    To keep someone in the loop.

[To end the email]

  1. If you have any questions, please don't hesitate to contact me.
    Hesitate=wait
  2. I look forward to hearing from you.
    We look forward to meeting you
    We look forward to your reply.
  3. Drop me an email, or give me a rang, if you want any more information.
  4. Yours Truly
    Warm Wishes
    Kind regards

When you’re initiating email contact with someone new

Very formal
“Might I take a moment of your time…” (to begin the email)
“Please may I introduce myself…” (to begin the email)
“Many thanks again for your time.” (to end the email)
More informal/friendly
“I’m just emailing to ask…” (to begin the email)
“I’m a friend of Bob’s…” (to begin the email)
“Just let me know if you have any questions.” (to end the email)
“Drop me an email, or give me a ring, if you want any more information.” (to end the email)

When you’ve answered someone’s question(s)

Very formal
“I trust the above resolves your queries. Should you have any further questions, please do not hesitate to contact me.”
More informal/friendly
“I know that’s a lot to take in, so let me know if anything I’ve said doesn’t make sense.”
“Hope the above helps, but email again if you’re still having any difficulties.”

When you’re asking the recipient to take some action

Very formal
“I would appreciate your help in this matter.”
More informal/friendly
“Could you look into this?”
“Would you mind checking it out for me?”
“Thanks in advance.”
“Can you get back to me once you’ve had a chance to investigate?”
“I’d love to hear your advice on this one.”

When you need a response (but not necessarily any action taking)

Very formal
“I await a response at your earliest convenience.”
More informal/friendly
“Can you drop me a quick word so I know you’ve received this?”
“Look forward to hearing from you.”

When you’ve heard nothing back and want to chase up a reply

Very formal
“In reference to my email of June 20th …”
More informal/friendly
“Just wondered if you got my email (June 20th)?”
“When you get a moment, could you drop me a line about my last email?”
Do you have any favourite stock phrases that you use in your work emails? Add yours in the comments!

When we make a request:

[more formal][less formal]
I would be grateful if you could … .Could you possibly … ?
I would appreciate (it) if you could … .Could you please … ?

When we agree to a request someone has made:

[more formal][less formal]
I would be delighted to … .I will be happy to … .
(delighted means very happy)

When apologising:

[more formal][less formal]
I apologise for the delay in replying.Sorry for the delay in replying.
I/We apologise for the inconvenience.Sorry for the inconvenience.
I/We apologise for any inconvenience caused.Sorry for any trouble caused.
Please accept our/my sincere apologies.I/We are very sorry … .

When giving bad news:

[more formal][less formal]
I/We regret that … .Unfortunately … .
I/We regret to inform you that … .I am sorry to have to tell you that … .
I am afraid that I must inform you of/that … .I am sorry to have to tell you that … .

When complaining:

(The following phrases may be used as the opening line of the letter or email.)
[more formal][less formal]
I/We wish to draw your attention to … .I wanted to inform you about … .
I am writing to complain about … .I would like to complain about … .
I am writing to express my dissatisfaction with … .[none]



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